The Best Swaddle Blankets for Newborn Babies
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Pregnant women and those of childbearing age should be the first targets for these actions. Tetanus as a cause of neonatal deaths ranged from One of the most underreported diseases [ 3 ]. Global elimination of neonatal tetanus is of major public health problems due to the Underreporting of NT cases.
Also, the underreporting of NT in developing countries have limited the impact of surveillance on disease control strategies, yet little consideration has been given to ways of improving the reporting system [ 4 ]. Three steps are needed to complete the reporting. First; the public must have access to health services, and second, must use them. Third, the health services must report cases accurately and regularly to the suitable health organization [ 15 ].
Tetanus is a highly fatal infection in the fetal stage and caused by a neurotoxin produced by C. The spores are extremely hardy but its destruction need prolonged exposure to iodine, hydrogen peroxide, formalin or gluteraldehyde or by autoclaving [ 10 ].
The spores develop into bacteria when they enter the body. Neonatal tetanus usually occurs because of umbilical infections.
We should know this, the spores germinate in the presence of anaerobic states. Toxins are produced and spread via the blood stream and lymphatic system.
Toxins act at several sites within the central nervous system, including peripheral motor end plates, spinal cord, and brain, as well as in the sympathetic nervous system.
The characteristic clinical demonstrations of tetanus are caused when tetanus toxin interferes with release of neurotransmitters and blocking inhibitor impulses. This cause muscle contraction and spasm. Seizures may occur, and the autonomic nervous system may also be affected.
The incubation period is usually days median 7 days [ 15 - 18 ], although exceptional cases have been reported with incubation periods as short as one day or longer than a month [ 1920 ]. The average incubation period for neonatal tetanus is shorter than that of non-neonatal tetanus. Dysphagia, neck, shoulder, back, or abdominal muscle stiffness and pain are other common early symptoms.
Also, in neonatal tetanus, trismus and lip muscle rigidity interfere with normal sucking and feeding, which is the hallmark of disease onset [ 23 ].
As disease severity increases, muscle rigidity extends throughout the body and muscle spasms begin, first in response to sensory stimuli but later progressing to spontaneous long-lasting excruciating spasms of many muscle groups [ 24 ]. In severe tetanus, sudden generalized tonic contractions of all muscle groups, or tetanospasms, result in opisthotonos, adduction of the shoulders, flexion of the elbows and wrists, and extension of the legs, usually accompanied by temperature rises of several degrees [ 25 ].
The true extent of the tetanus death toll is not known, since many newborns and mothers die at home and neither the birth nor the death is reported.
MNT cases are clustered in poor, remote, and disenfranchised communities where unhygienic obstetric and postnatal practices prevail, and access to maternal tetanus toxoid immunization is poor.
Differences in neonatal tetanus incidence and mortality of at least an order of magnitude have been identified between regions and countries, and between urban and rural areas within countries [ 27 ]. In industrialized countries, neonatal tetanus ceased to be a substantial problem by the midth century: However, this situation has improved in the past 20 years [ 23 ].
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Food and Drug Administration regulates formulas to ensure they're safe and contain the most important nutrients. Ask your pediatrician if she recommends a formula with added iron, DHA or other nutrients. Your choice of powder, liquid or concentrate primarily boils down to issues of cost and convenience. Fear of an allergic reaction makes some parents reluctant to give their babies milk-based formula brands, but only 3 percent to 4 percent of infants have a true milk allergy.
Surprisingly, soy formula may not be a good alternative for babies with a milk allergy because those babies may also have an intolerance to soy protein. However, soy-based formula is a good choice for parents who don't want their babies to eat animal products. Hypoallergenic formulas break down milk proteins so that they're more easily digested.
Try these tips to make formula feeding easier: Newborn Care from Head to Toe Follow these simple, doctor-recommended tips for keeping your baby clean and comfy. Face It's disconcerting to see a newborn with a red, blotchy face, but baby acne is a common and harmless condition. Wash your baby's face daily with a mild baby soap.
Eyes Some babies have a yellowish discharge or crusting in the eye or on the lid, which is usually caused by a blocked tear duct. This condition can last several months. Wipe the area using a cotton ball moistened with warm water. Scalp Many newborns develop a scaly scalp condition called cradle cap. It typically disappears in the first few months.
Wash your baby's hair with a gentle baby shampoo no more than three times a week and gently brush out the scales daily using a baby hairbrush or soft toothbrush. Nose Babies' narrow nasal passages tend to fill with mucus.
Can you take a newborn baby home in an expired car seat?
Gently unclog nostrils with an infant-sized nasal bulb syringe or try the trauma-minimizing Nosefrida nosefrida. To loosen mucus, insert saline solution with an eyedropper before suctioning.
Nails A newborn's nails usually are soft, but they can scratch his sensitive skin. Use baby nail clippers or blunt-nosed scissors. Clip after his bath when nails are soft, or when he's asleep and his fingers are relaxed. Skin Some babies develop red, itchy patches called eczema or atopic dermatitis—an inheritable skin condition. Limit baths to 10 minutes, and use a mild, fragrance-free soap and lukewarm water; liberally apply hypoallergenic skin cream immediately afterward.
Stick to cotton clothing. Bottom Too much moisture plus sensitive skin can equal diaper rash for many babies. Rinse your baby's bottom with water during each change and blot dry.
Avoid using wipes; they may irritate skin. Barrier creams, such as petroleum jelly or white zinc oxide, may help. Umbilical Cord Keep the umbilical cord stump clean and dry; it will shrivel and fall off within a few weeks. Avoid covering the cord area with a diaper and stick to sponge baths until the stump detaches. Circumcision The tip of the penis will be swollen, and a yellow scab will appear.
Gently clean the genital area with warm water daily. Use petroleum jelly to protect the site and prevent the penis from sticking to a diaper.
Legs Newborns' legs are bowed out and the feet are turned in, which is no surprise, given their previous cramped living quarters. Don't worry about it—your baby's legs and feet will straighten in anywhere from six to 18 months.
Feet Newborns' toes frequently overlap and the nails look ingrown but aren't. Don't sweat it—this appearance is perfectly normal. My baby seems to have his days and nights confused. What can I do? Make sure he gets bright light in the morning, and keep him as busy as you can during the day. Are bedtime rituals really important? If I rock my baby to sleep, won't he become dependent on it? You can still rock him as part of the wind-down process, but put him down drowsy, not asleep.
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Should my baby nap on a schedule? Look to your baby for his evolving schedule after about three months—before that, anything goes. By age 9 months, most babies naturally move to napping at around 9 a. When can I put my baby down to sleep and go have a glass of wine? Waldburger and other experts suggest that when he's about 5 months old, you can experiment with letting your baby cry a bit at night.
That does not mean letting him scream for hours. Try starting with five minutes, Waldburger suggests; if that's too hard to take, pick him up after three minutes. A bedside or freestanding but nearby bassinet is a good option.