Alchemy Illuminated Manuscripts Trinity
Die Geschichtsquellen des deutschen Mittelalters: planetaokon.info (–) medieval studies more suited to online publication than these reference tools for .. expect from a nationally based project and is, in general, quite up-to-date. Repertorium „Geschichtsquellen des deutschen Mittelalters“ To date, the catalogue contains more than 5, works in Latin and German, including the This list is only published digitally on the Internet, the articles are constantly updated. Main · Videos; Att dating service dating geschichtsquellen des deutschen mittelalters online dating geschichtsquellen des deutschen mittelalters online dating.
Illustration to Scivias II. Scivias is a contraction of Sci vias Domini Know the Ways of the Lordand it was Hildegard's first major visionary work, and one of the biggest milestones in her life.
Perceiving a divine command to "write down what you see and hear",  Hildegard began to record and interpret her visionary experiences - 26 in total visionary experiences were captured in this compilation. Scivias is structured into three parts of unequal length.
The first part six visions chronicles the order of God's creation: The second part seven visions describes the order of redemption: Finally, the third part thirteen visions recapitulates the history of salvation told in the first two parts, symbolized as a building adorned with various allegorical figures and virtues. It concludes with the Symphony of Heaven, an early version of Hildegard's musical compositions.
In earlya commission was sent by the Pope to Disibodenberg to find out more about Hildegard and her writings. The commission found that the visions were authentic and returned to the Pope, with a portion of the Scivias.
Portions of the uncompleted work were read aloud to Pope Eugenius III at the Synod of Trier inafter which he sent Hildegard a letter with his blessing. She had already explored this area in her musical morality play, Ordo Virtutum, and the "Book of the Rewards of Life" takes up that play's characteristic themes.
Each vice, although ultimately depicted as ugly and grotesque, nevertheless offers alluring, seductive speeches that attempt to entice the unwary soul into their clutches. Standing in our defense, however, are the sober voices of the Virtues, powerfully confronting every vicious deception. Lucca, MSearly 13th-century copy. Hildegard's last and grandest visionary work had its genesis in one of the few times she experienced something like an ecstatic loss of consciousness.
As she described it in an autobiographical passage included in her Vita, sometime in aboutshe received "an extraordinary mystical vision" in which was revealed the "sprinkling drops of sweet rain" that John the Evangelist experienced when he wrote, "In the beginning was the Word Hildegard perceived that this Word was the key to the "Work of God", of which humankind is the pinnacle. Often, that relationship is established by grand allegorical female figures representing Divine Love Caritas or Wisdom Sapientia.
The first vision opens the work with a salvo of poetic and visionary images, swirling about to characterize God's dynamic activity within the scope of his work within the history of salvation. The remaining three visions of the first part introduce the famous image of a human being standing astride the spheres that make up the universe, and detail the intricate relationships between the human as microcosm and the universe as macrocosm.
This commentary interprets each day of creation in three ways: Finally, the five visions of the third part take up again the building imagery of Scivias to describe the course of salvation history. The final vision 3.
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In addition to the Ordo Virtutumsixty-nine musical compositions, each with its own original poetic text, survive, and at least four other texts are known, though their musical notation has been lost. O frondens virga Problems playing this file? One of her better known works, Ordo Virtutum Play of the Virtuesis a morality play. It is uncertain when some of Hildegard's compositions were composed, though the Ordo Virtutum is thought to have been composed as early as The most significant part of this entire composition is, however, that the Ordo virtutum is the earliest known, surviving musical drama that is not attached to a liturgy.
This entertainment was both performed and bemused by a select community of noblewomen and nuns. Even more fascinating about this piece, the devil has no music whatsoever in the plot of the play, he instead shouts and bellows all his lines. All other characters sing in monophonic plainchant. The Ordo virtutum was probably performed as a manifestation of the theology Hildegard delineated in the Scivias. The play serves as a group enchantment of the Christian story of sin, confession, repentance, and forgiveness.
However, it is the female Virtues who restore the fallen to the community of the faithful, not the male Patriarchs or Prophets. Scholars assert that the role of the Devil would have been played by Volmar, while Hildegard's nuns would have played the parts of Anima the human souls and the Virtues. The songs from the Symphonia are set to Hildegard's own text and range from antiphons, hymns, and sequences, to responsories. Though Hildegard's music is often thought to stand outside the normal practices of monophonic monastic chant,  current researchers are also exploring ways in which it may be viewed in comparison with her contemporaries, such as Hermannus Contractus.
Scholars such as Margot FasslerMarianne Richert Pfau, and Beverly Lomer also note the intimate relationship between music and text in Hildegard's compositions, whose rhetorical features are often more distinct than is common in twelfth-century chant.
This greenness or power of life appears frequently in Hildegard's works. Neither claim to be rooted in her visionary experience and its divine authority.
Rather, they spring from her experience helping in and then leading the monastery's herbal garden and infirmary, as well as the theoretical information she likely gained through her wide-ranging reading in the monastery's library. The first, Physica, contains nine books that describe the scientific and medicinal properties of various plants, stones, fish, reptiles, and animals.
The second, Causae et Curae, is an exploration of the human body, its connections to the rest of the natural world, and the causes and cures of various diseases.
She also explains remedies for common agricultural injuries such as burns, fractures, dislocations, and cuts. These books are historically significant because they show areas of medieval medicine that were not well documented because their practitioners mainly women rarely wrote in Latin. Its first part sets the work within the context of the creation of the cosmos and then humanity as its summit, and the constant interplay of the human person as microcosm both physically and spiritually with the macrocosm of the universe informs all of Hildegard's approach.
Viriditas, or greening power, was thought to sustain human beings and could be manipulated by adjusting the balance of elements within a person. Rather, Hildegard understood the plants and elements of the garden as direct counterparts to the humors and elements within the human body, whose imbalance led to illness and disease. She even includes bleeding instructions for animals to keep them healthy. In the third and fourth sections, Hildegard describes treatments for malignant and minor problems and diseases according to the humoral theory, again including information on animal health.
The fifth section is about diagnosis and prognosis, which includes instructions to check the patient's blood, pulse, urine and stool.
Frankfurt Renaissance Manuscript Theological
Hildegard understood the disease-causing imbalance of these humors to result from the improper dominance of the subordinate humors. This disharmony reflects that introduced by Adam and Eve in the Fall, which for Hildegard marked the indelible entrance of disease and humoral imbalance into humankind. It happens that certain men suffer diverse illnesses. This comes from the phlegm which is superabundant within them. For if man had remained in paradise, he would not have had the flegmata within his body, from which many evils proceed, but his flesh would have been whole and without dark humor [livor].
However, because he consented to evil and relinquished good, he was made into a likeness of the earth, which produces good and useful herbs, as well as bad and useless ones, and which has in itself both good and evil moistures.
From tasting evil, the blood of the sons of Adam was turned into the poison of semen, out of which the sons of man are begotten. And therefore their flesh is ulcerated and permeable [to disease]. These sores and openings create a certain storm and smoky moisture in men, from which the flegmata arise and coagulate, which then introduce diverse infirmities to the human body.
The image is enclosed in a narrow oval shape, shaded in blue around the edges and white in the center, on a beige-pink ground with floral scrolls, all bordered in a rectangular gold frame now slightly flaking.
Re-used later in Reusner,p. A flask or retort finishing in a gold crown containing an Ouroboros dragon eating its tailon top of which sits two birds an eagle and a crow? Used later by Reusner,p. The fourth image from this manuscript, now Stockholm, National Museum of Sweden, B reproduced in Nordenfalk,cat.
Das Buch der heiligen Dreifaltigkiet The Book of the Holy Trinitythe earliest alchemical work in German, belongs in the tradition of alchemical texts such as those by Johannes Rupescissa and Pseudo-Arnaldus of Villanova, that were influenced by the eschatological ideas of the Spiritual Franciscans, although in this case alchemy is seen as a means to help establish the reign of a last emperor. Its author, generally identified as a Franciscan by the name of Ulmannus, was present at the Council of Constance inwhere he presented some version of the text to the Emperor Sigismond; in the completed text was dedicated to Frederick Ielector of Brandenburg.
The Trinity and the Passion of Christ are used as allegories for alchemy, and the text also included practical alchemical recipes.
There is no modern critical edition of the text, nor a complete survey of all the extant manuscripts, but it survives in at least twenty-four manuscripts and fragments, dating from the fifteenth through the seventeenth centuries see Telle,Buntz,listed sixteen complete manuscripts and eight fragments; cf.
The third group of manuscripts, evidence of an even more extensive cycle of illustrations, is represented by the manuscript, now lost, that included the miniatures described here and the Stockholm leafas well as Manchester, John Rylands Library, MS germ. The subjects of the three miniatures and the fourth miniature, now in Stockholm are also found in a work published in BaselPandora, Das ist die Edleste Gab Gottes The sequence of eighteen woodcuts in the latter part of the book—one of the first alchemical image series published—makes it unique, and are said to encode an actual sequence of chemical processes.
Miniature 1, see Reusner,p. Literature Boeren, Petrus Cornelis. Codices Vossiani chymici, Leiden, Die Blankenburger Handschriften, Frankfurt a. Eine deutsche Alchemie aus dem Anfang des