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Because political parties have focused on obstructing the president's legislative The Central University of Ecuador dates from .. It is located in a recently built campus in the northern part of the city. .. The pool at the Oro Verde Hotel offers club membership at $ a year for families and $ for singles. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or Childhood emotional abuse and attachment processes in the dyadic adjustment of dating couples. . Acquaintance rape on college and university campuses. Ecuadorian clinics allegedly use abuse to “cure” homosexuality. Ecuador Tropical Ecology Spring Phase 1: First Things FirstAdmission – October 20Academics, Housing, Flights. Phase 2: Core PreparationsOctober

There are coins of 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 cents and 1 dollar, and notes of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and dollars. Although issuance of higher notes ceased ina limited number of notes of1, 5, and 10, dollars remain in circulation. The metric system is the legal standard, but local and old Spanish units also are used. Movable holidays include Carnival and Holy Week. It has a length of km mi n—s and a width of km mi e—w.

Ecuador borders Colombia on the n, Peru on the e and s, and the Pacific Ocean on the w, with a total boundary length of 4, km 2, miof which 2, km 1, mi is coastline.

Ecuador has lost about two-thirds of the territory it once claimed to Colombia and Peru.

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The total area of the republic and its territory is estimated atsq kmsq mi. Comparatively, the area occupied by Ecuador is slightly smaller than the state of Nevada. Armed hostilities flared along a still undemarcated stretch of the border in Januarybut by 20 February, a km 9-mi demilitarized zone had been arranged along the disputed line. Official maps of Ecuador show the entire region as Ecuadoran territory.

Ecuador's capital city, Quito, is located in the north central part of the country. The coast, except for a hilly area west of Guayaquil, is a low alluvial plain from 32 to km 20 to mi wide, comprising about one-quarter of the national territory. It extends from sea level to the base of the Cordillera Real of the Andes, at an elevation of about m 1, ft. The Guayas in the southwest and the Esmeraldas in the northwest form the principal river systems and serve as important arteries of transportation in their respective regions.

The highlands constitute another fourth of the country. This region is formed by two parallel ranges of the Andes, from to km 70 to mi wide, and the intervening narrow central plateau, nearly km mi long. This inter-Andean plateau is divided into 10 basins at altitudes from 2, to 2, m 7, to 9, ftsome draining east and some west.

The Andes are studded with massive snow-capped volcanoes, the highest of which are Chimborazo, 6, m 20, ft ; Cotopaxi, 5, m 19, ftthe world's third-highest active volcano; Cayambe, 5, m 18, ft ; Antisana, 5, m 18, ft ; Altar, 5, m 17, ft ; Iliniza, 5, m 17, ft ; Sangay, 5, m 17, ft ; and Tungurahua, 5, m 16, ft. The Oriente, forming part of the upper Amazon Basin, begins at the base of the Andes at about 1, m 4, ft. The land at first drops quickly and is segmented by rushing torrents escaping from the cold highlands.

At about m ftthe forests become almost level, and the streams suddenly widen into sluggish, meandering rivers as they begin their journey down the Amazon system to the Atlantic. As such, it is an area of frequent, though usually moderate, seismic activity.

One of the worst earthquakes in history occurred off the coast of Ecuador on 31 January Between and people were killed by the event. More recent quakes have been significantly less destructive. An earthquake of 5. Most of the coast consists of wet, tropical forest, increasingly humid toward the north. In the Guayaquil area there are two seasons: The tropical forests of the Oriente, east of the Andes, are more humid than the coast; there, temperatures are high, and rain falls all year round.

The climate of the central plateau is governed mainly by the altitude. The highlands are cut by numerous deep valleys, which bring subtropical climates to within a few miles of the more temperate areas. The higher areas rise to peaks above 5, m 17, ft that are perpetually covered with snow.

In these humid regions, the typical dense growth of the tropical jungle abounds, extending as wet mossy forests up the Andean slopes to over 2, m 8, ft in some places. The highland valleys, at an altitude between 2, and 3, m 8, and 10, ftsupport most of the temperate-zone plants; potatoes and corn, for example, have been raised there for thousands of years.

There are few native trees in the highlands; eucalyptus was introduced in the s and has been widely planted. The Oriente has little that is unique to tropical flora except for the delicious naranjilla, a small green orange used in making a conserve. Ecuadoran forests support the usual smaller mammals, reptiles, and birds. In the highlands, the condor and a few other species of birds are found.

There is relatively little wild game because of the density of the population and the intensive use of the land. The Amerindians still make some use of the llama in southern Ecuador. Throughout the highlands, Amerindians and some mestizos raise cavies guinea pigs in their homes as an important source of meat. As ofthere were at least species of mammals, species of birds, and over 19, species of plants throughout the country.

The Ecuadoran Institute of Water Resources estimated that the amount of arid land increased by Between and, hectaresacres of land were deforested annually. From —, the annual rate of deforestation was about 1. It was estimated that, at current deforestation rates, coastal forests will be completely eliminated within 10 years and the Amazon forests will be gone within 40 years.

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Traditional farming practices have been blamed for most of these problems, but oil development has also played a role in the clearing of forests.

A program for reforestation and maintenance of existing forests was initiated inbut only 4, hectares 10, acres were reforested annually during the early s.

Ecuador's principal environmental agency is the Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy. Land erosion is accelerated by deforestation. Flooding and desertification are related problems which have damaged or eliminated valuable soil, particularly in the western coastal region. Water pollution is a problem due to the influx of domestic, industrial, and agricultural contaminants.

There are 11 Ramsar wetland sites. The expansion of Ecuador's population centers threatens its wildlife. Endangered species on the Ecuadoran mainland include the tundra peregrine falcon, yellow-tailed woolly monkey, five species of turtle green sea, hawksbill, olive ridley, leatherback, and South American riverand three species of crocodile spectacled caiman, black caiman, and American.

According to a report issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources IUCNthreatened species included 34 types of mammals, 69 species of birds, 10 types of reptiles, species of amphibians, 12 species of fish, 48 types of mollusks, and 1, species of plants.

Ecuador's natural attractions could lead to increased tourism, benefiting the economy. However, environmental problems, including further endangerment of native plants and animals, could be exacerbated without careful management of the areas attractive to tourists.

There were males for every females in the country. According to the UN, the annual population rate of change for —10 was expected to be 2. The government incorporated family life education into the school curriculum in an attempt to address the high adolescent fertility rate. The projected population for the year was 17, The population density was 46 per sq km per sq mi.

The capital city, Quito, had a population of 1, in that year. Guayaquil, the major port, had 2, metropolitan inhabitants.

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Other large cities and their estimated populations were Cuenca, Machala, and PortoviejoThere was an influx of European refugees in the late s. Ina modest attempt was made to colonize the northern coastal province of Esmeraldas with Italian families. Within Ecuador, the largest migration is from rural areas to the cities, as urban employment opportunities widen. There is also a growing movement from the overpopulated highlands to the virgin lands of the Oriente and the coast.

Most of these people were living and working in the capital, Quito. The net migration rate estimated for Ecuador in was The government views the migration rates as satisfactory. There are only a few groups of unassimilated Amerindians on the coast, notably the Colorados and Cayapas.

The blacks live mainly in the northern coastal province of Esmeraldas. The Spanish of the coastal areas is similar to that of the other lowland areas of Latin Americamaintaining something of the Andalusian characteristics, especially the dropping or slurring of the consonants represented by s and d. In the isolated highlands, a more precise Castilian pronunciation is found, but many words and even some of the singsong intonations of Quechua, the Amerindian language, have crept into the Spanish.

A small percentage of the total population speak only Quichua, a dialect of the Quechua language. Some speak Quichua in addition to Spanish. Quechua was imposed on the Amerindians of Ecuador by the conquering Incas in the 15th century, supplanting a number of unrelated languages.

Remnants of these forgotten languages are retained in many modern place names. There has been little detailed study of the languages of the tribes of the Oriente. In fact, the Roman Catholic Church is considered to be one of the three pillars of society, along with the government and the military.

Some individuals combine customs and beliefs of traditional indigenous religions with their practice of Catholicism. Animistic religions survive among the Amerindians of the Oriente.

Itzachilatan is one Amerindian church. Some natives are followers of Inti, the Incan sun god. Freedom of worship is guaranteed by the constitution and this right is generally respected in practice.

In there were 43, km 26, mi of highways, including 7, km 4, mi of paved roads. Inthe five-nation Bolivarian Highway was undertaken, as were east—west routes linking the Oriente with the Sierra, and Guayaquil with its hinterland. The most important lateral route connecting the highlands and the coast runs from Latacunga, crossing a pass in the Cordillera Real over 3, m 12, ft high, to Quevedo in the lowlands. Inthere werepassenger cars andcommercial vehicles. Modern port facilities to serve Guayaquil were opened in on an estuary 10 km 6 mi from the Guayas River.

The Guayas River basin is important for transportation in the coastal provinces. As ofEcuador had 1, km mi of internal navigable waterways, but most are inaccessible. Railways, all government owned, are of decreasing importance because of their poor condition and competition from highways. As ofthe nation's three railroad networks totaled km mi of narrow gauge track, of which the most important line ran between Guayaquil and Quito.

Floods in damaged much of the system, and by service had been restored on only some of the sections. The railway system has been largely inoperative for the last decade, following damage by a major earthquake. Ecuador's rugged topography has hastened the growth of air travel. There were an estimated airports and airfields in In a total of 85 had paved runways, and there was also one heliport. Intotal scheduled airline traffic amounted to 8 million freight ton-km and around 1.

HISTORY Archaeological explorations indicate that the coastal regions of present-day Ecuador supported corn-cultivating communities as early as bc. In the first few centuries ad, the population was divided into dozens of small isolated tribes.

By adthe highland groups had formed a loose federation, the Kingdom of Quito, but they were absorbed into the Inca Empire in the late 15th century. Atahualpa, son of the conquering Inca Huayna Capac and a Quito princess, later became emperor, but by then the Spanish forces under Francisco Pizarro were gaining a foothold on the coast. The actual conquest reached Ecuador in Except for a few emeralds, from which their first landing place took its name the city and province of Esmeraldasthe Spanish found those shores valuable only as a stopping place on their way to the riches of the Incas in Peru.

He found the northern capital of the Inca Empire left in ashes by the retreating Amerindians, and on that site inhe founded the city of San Francisco de Quito, later to become the capital of the republic. Quito, in the cool highlands, was soon steeped in culture and rich in ornately decorated churches and monasteries. Guayaquil, the principal seaport, grew slowly because of its unhealthy tropical climate, and would not become a major city until much later. The Spanish colonial period was a time of ruthless exploitation of the Amerindians and bickering and bloodshed among the Spanish in the struggle for power and riches.

Republic of Ecuador The early stirrings of Ecuadorian independence were spread, in part, through the writings of the 18th-century satirist Francisco Javier Eugenio de Santa Cruz y Espejo. Abortive revolts against Spanish rule came in and in The decisive struggle began on 9 Octoberwith the proclamation of an independent Guayaquil. Finally, on 24 Maywith the Battle of Pinchincha, the Spanish were defeated.

This victory unified the liberation movements of the continent. The year period of Flores's domination was noted for iron-handed conservative rule. Then, from —60, Ecuador went through 11 presidents and juntas. The nation was split between pro-clerical Conservatives and the more secular Liberals, and regional strongmen vied for power. He sought peace and consolidation for his torn country through a rigid, theocratic government. His administration granted special privileges to the Roman Catholic Churcheven dedicating the Republic to "The Sacred Heart of Jesus" by act of congress in However, his relentless conservatism caused bitter strife, culminating in the dictator's assassination in Eloy Alfaro, who ushered in the Radical Liberal era with the revolution of Church and state were carefully separated, and liberty of thought, worship, and the press was established.

The Guayaquil- Quito railway was completed, uniting the coast and the highlands commercially. The Liberal era continued untilwith numerous interludes of violence and crisis. The economy rose and fell with world prices on such commodities as cocoa. Territory was lost to Brazil inColombia inand finally Peru in The border dispute with Peru, originating in the colonial period, came to a climax when Peru invaded Ecuador's southern and Oriente Amazon Basin provinces.

Velasco, who had served as president during —35, ruled for three years until he was sent into exile. After three ineffective presidents in less than one year, Galo Plaza Lasso —52 was elected to the presidency.

Plaza, later chief of the OAS, ruled for four years. InVelasco Ibarra returned to office for four years, and was again elected in In his inaugural address, Velasco formally renounced the Treaty ofand embarked on an economic program of "growth through inflation. Arosemena lasted less than two years, and in Julyhe was arrested by the military for "drunkenness" a charge that could have been substantiated throughout his presidency and sent into exile. Military governments A four-man military junta headed by Capt.

Elections were scheduled and held in October for a constitutional assembly. Innew elections were held for the presidency, won yet again by Velasco.

On 22 Junefollowing a fiscal crisis, Velasco suspended the constitution and assumed dictatorial power. He dissolved Congress, reorganized the Supreme Court, and proceeded to rule by executive decree. In JuneVelasco promised new presidential and congressional elections, which were scheduled for the following June.

However, on 15 FebruaryVelasco was overthrown in a bloodless coup after he refused demands by senior army officers to postpone the elections. On the following day, Gen.

Velasco, deported to Panama, was granted asylum by Venezuela. A three-member Supreme Council assumed power and presidential elections took place in Julybut because none of the candidates received the required majority, a runoff election was held in April Christian Democrat Osvaldo Hurtado was made vice president. Both were inaugurated on 10 Augustthe day Ecuador's current constitution went into effect.

Hurtado's term was marked by modest gains in the economy, but bya flagging economy, caused in part by widespread flooding, led to calls for change. Febres formed a coalition government and pressed his platform of reducing state intervention in the economy and making it more responsive to market forces.

Just as it appeared that Febres's fiscal policies were about to bring widespread benefits to the populace, Ecuador was dealt two staggering blows: Borja won the runoff election, and took office along with a strong contingent in congress.

The government made improvements in Ecuador's human rights record; however, economic troubles, particularly inflation, continued, and the ID lost half its congressional seats in midterm elections in These measures proved economically successful, but socially unpopular. On 26 Januarythe longstanding border dispute with Peru sprang to life once again when Ecuadorian troops attacked a Peruvian post.

A full-fledged war began, which lasted until March 1, causing some 80 casualties and leaving wounded. A showy and eccentric populist, Bucaram quickly alienated most of the political establishment. Bucaram had come to describe himself as "El Loco," or the madman, and citizens began to believe that he was indeed crazy. On February 6, Congress declared Bucaram mentally incompetent, charged him with corruption, and ousted him from office. Bucaram finally fled to Panama, while Arteaga agreed to briefly become president until Congress could establish right of succession.

Alarcon emerged as interim president, and held office until the next presidential election in Bythe economy had contracted by 7. Presidential elections were held in Maywith Harvard-educated Jamil Mahuad facing Alvaro Noboa, a banana tycoon and reputedly the richest man in the country.

With promises for political stability and economic recovery, Mahuad prevailed at the polls and took office in July The next month, extensive constitutional reforms approved by a National Constituent Assembly took effect.

Reforms gave unprecedented new rights to the country's indigenous peoples, who had become more vocal about their rights during the s. Inthe leaders of 11 indigenous groups joined with women, ecologists, and human rights workers to found the Pachakutik "change" or "revolution" in Quichua political movement.

Under this new political umbrella, native peoples urged massive social changes, and won several seats in Congress by By latenative peoples had grown disenchanted with Mahuad. Amerindian leaders accused him of lacking sympathy for native peoples' economic problems. In the meantime, Mahuad was unable to bring the economy under control and was making political enemies. Ecuador gained a small sliver of land and navigation rights on some Peruvian rivers. The peace accord was seen as a defeat within Ecuador, where the military resented its loss of power and resources and was embarrassed by territorial concessions to Peru.

In JanuaryMahuad announced plans to replace the sucre, the national currency, with the US dollar to stabilize the economy and end chronic inflation.

Indigenous groups grew angry at the plan because they believed they would lose their savings. The sucre had been pegged at about 8, per dollar only a year earlier, but now stood at 25, per dollar.

On 21 January, thousands of indigenous peoples marched to protest "dollarization" of the economy and called for Mahuad's ouster.

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With the aid of the military, they occupied the empty Congress building and Supreme Court. Mahuad fled the government palace. Carlos Mendoza took power and declared that a three-man junta would lead the country. The junta only lasted a few hours.

Under intense international pressure, the junta was dissolved. Congress named the year-old vice president, Gustavo Noboa Bejarano, as president. Noboa, a respected former academic carried out the dollarization of the economy.

By giving up its currency, Ecuador turned its monetary policy to the US Federal Reserve seeking to stabilize its economy. He went on to win the runoff election with Although he used a populist rhetoric to win the election, after his inauguration he has sought to reassure foreign investors and international lending institutions. He has maintained the economic policies of his predecessors and has softened his criticism of the dollarization initiative.

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Despite strong economic growth, unemployment and underemployment remained high and the cost of livingexacerbated by the dollarization scheme, continued to hurt the poor. Opposition against his government, fueled by opposition parties and built on popular discontent with economic policies, combined with Gutierrez's effort to undermine the Supreme Court were sufficient to provoke new protests against the government. New presidential and parliamentary elections were scheduled for 26 November The political challenges Ecuador faces are complex.

The last three democratically elected presidents were forced to resign due to social protests or were removed from office by the legislature. The legislature became specialized on blocking presidential initiatives and weakening the executive. Yet, fragmented political parties failed to constitute themselves into a positive and constructive force. If the shot is unavailable, please ask your doctor to make a note on your WHO card.

Typhoid The oral regimen causes less reaction than the injection. Hepatitis A Hepatitis A is best avoided by not drinking tap water, eating raw vegetables or uncooked shellfish.

Getting a gamma globulin injection as close to departure as possible in the States prior to travel is recommended. The Hepatitis A vaccine must be given twice, six months apart. It is costly, but may be worthwhile, especially for academic-year students. Rabies The pre-vaccine for rabies is recommended if working in rural areas or occupationally exposed to animals. In particular, Tropical Ecology students who plan to work with bats should consult their physicians regarding this vaccination.

You must have the rabies vaccine to work with bats at TBS. Malaria and Zika Malaria is endemic to much of the developing world despite continued and expensive efforts to eradicate it. It is fairly uncommon in much of Ecuador, although certain areas of the country are at risk.

Malaria is characterized by headache, fever, chills, and sweating. These symptoms subside and then recur over a period of days. Left untreated, the disease may progress to anemia, heart or kidney failure, coma, and even death. Malaria cannot live in the high altitude region of Quito, so this is only an issue when living in the lowland areas.

Again, it is best to consult a physician regarding the need and use of anti-malarial medication. Past students have found antimalarial medication is available, and much less expensive, in Ecuador available through the university. In the past, students have opted to purchase medication in Ecuador if necessary. Anti-malarial medication for Chloroquine-resistant malarial parasites is recommended but not required.

In most instances, mefloquine, trade name Lariam, or malarone are usually prescribed, although other options are also available. The best precaution is a combination of avoiding mosquito bites and taking anti-malarial medication.

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You should consult your doctor regarding your need and use of anti-malarial medication. You cannot donate blood for three years after you have taken antimalarial drugs. There is no vaccine or medication yet to prevent or treat it yet, thus prevention is the only way to fight it.

Zika is usually mild with symptoms lasting for several days to a week. For this reason, many people might not realize they have been infected. Symptoms of Zika are similar to other viruses spread through mosquito bites, like dengue and chikungunya. While Zika is rarely life threatening to a healthy individual, it is particularly concerning for pregnant women, as it has been known to cause birth defects in the fetus passed through from the mother to the fetus.

It has also been found to be sexually transmitted, so practicing safe-sex habits is strongly recommended. If you think you have Zika, and are or could become pregnant, seek medical attention right away. In the cases of both Malaria and Zika, Mosquitoes are most prevalent after the rainy season has begun because mosquitoes breed in stagnant water. Cover yourself during these hours with long pants and long-sleeved shirts.

Sleep under mosquito netting this will be provided when necessaryburn mosquito coils, and run a fan at night. Apply repellent to exposed areas of the skin. If you use a repellent and have a skin reaction or feel nauseous, try a repellent with a lower concentration of DEET.

Avoiding mosquito bites is not for the inconvenience of itching but to ensure your healthy future. Anaphylaxis and Allergies Individuals with acute sensitivity to insect venom are at a high risk of serious allergic reaction while at Tiputini.

Students with such allergies should bring several Epi-Pens self-injections of adrenaline for emergencies and carry them on their person at all times at Tiputini, the coast and Galapagos. To initiate the approval request process, complete this Request for Accomodations Form RAF and submit it to access bu. Please note that certain accommodations that you receive on your home campus may not be available at your program site, so the earlier that you are in contact with their office for advising, the better.

The process for arranging accommodations may take several weeks. If you are currently consulting with a mental health professional, you must seek their counsel about the advisability of your participation in a study abroad program, especially as related to your adjustment to new cultural, academic, and housing environments and the availability of therapeutic or medical support while you are away from your home campus.

You should have completed: From Phase 1 Confirmed your participation via your BU Study Abroad Application, paid your program deposit, and filled out the accompanying online forms. Any questions regarding your bill or making payments should be directed to BU Student Accounting Services at studenta bu.

The Spring payment deadline is February 4, Please contact your home institution to discuss your specific billing arrangement with Boston University.

Any additional questions regarding your bill or making payments should be directed to abroad bu. Additional information can be found on our Frequently Asked Questions page. All bills are US bills.

You will carry much more change than you are used to in the US, so you may want to plan accordingly and bring a change purse. The obvious danger of losing your cash or having it stolen does not make this a good option for large sums of money, however.

Only go out with the smallest amount of money you need, as petty theft is not uncommon in Quito. You always want to ensure you have multiple access points to money, in case you lose one.

US banks vary widely in the charges they attach to foreign ATM withdrawals.

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Shop around well before leaving and consider moving your account based on what you learn. Check with your bank to determine if your ATM card will work in Ecuador. Be persistent in finding out information on service fees and restrictions. You should not consider opening an Ecuadorian bank account!! Most credit cards now charge overseas transaction fees, as do banks when withdrawing cash. One copy should be left at home with a parent.

The other should be taken to Ecuador and kept in a safe place. Having copies of credit cards and any other important documents on hand will make it easier to replace them if lost or stolen. All students will need to have access to a local Ecuadorian mobile phone number while on their program. An affordable local phone can be purchased during the first few days of the program, and phone cards that add minutes to local phones are widely available.

Most students find that they use their phones to text local friends significantly more than they use their phones to make local calls. Most students choose to purchase a local phone and to use their current smartphones on airplane mode with WiFi whenever they can find it. You will also not have a local phone number, which is essential, especially for emergency contact purposes.

There are also many points around Quito with public WiFi, including cafes. Some popular, reliable, and free apps include: Some students make plans where they schedule a call every Tuesday and Thursday, or once a week on Sundays — whatever works for you! Remember that the best plan is one you can stick to. Test them out together, so everyone knows how to use them. Remember that internet access and technology will differ in Ecuador. Packing List and Tips - Tropical Ecology Essentials Your passport with visa and Certificado de Visacion Clothing Generally lightweight cotton clothes for rainforest and coastal sites; warm jacket and wool sweater for montane sites.

Clothes for class and general going out around Quito. Jeans are hot and difficult to dry in the field. Socks 6—8 pairs; they get wet and dirty quite easily. They keep your feet dryer than cotton and they are cooler than wool. One or two sweatshirts for cool evenings in Quito. Dress shoes and clothes for social events in Quito Latin Americans dress a bit more formally in general.